Tan Tui Kung Fu Origin and Features

tan tui

tan tui

Tan Tui is a famous Northern wushu routine and has several versions due to its incorporation into various styles. For this reason the name can be translated to mean “spring” or “springing leg” (the most popular) or “pond” or “lake leg”.
China is a dish spiced by many cultures. There are over 50 minorities among the Chinese besides the Han people themselves. A significant number, over five million of these, are moslems – known in Chinese as the “Hui” people. In the tenth century large numbers of Persians and Arabs extended the Moslem trade routes deep into China. Many settled and widely dispersed through the country; some living among the general population, some sticking close to concentrated communities of believers.

Known for toughness, courage and high spirit the Moslem population of China has not been passive in its growth. Often exploited and suppressed they maintained a stubborn reliance on their beliefs and fighting skills. But reprisals often came. In the Ching dynasty, for instance, three Hui people walking together with weapons could be punished. If caught committing a crime they might even had their faces branded Hui Zei (Moslem Rebel). Such was the discriminatory treatment of Moslems throughout the empire. On the other hand, in the 13th century Moslem generals rallied under a new banner and helped establish the Ming dynasty – a high point of Chinese history. Unceasingly, Moslem martial artists adopted and perfected the indigenous arts of China. They developed a number of fists that are still practiced with honor today. But at the base was one particular exercise known as …

The Moslem Spring Leg

If there is one universally recognized set for the Moslem style it is the spring leg or tan tui. At first blush tan tui seems colosally unimpressive. The moves are repetitious, stretched out, almost mechanical and performed up and back as though on a track; each segment is termed a “road”. The original style was subdivided into ten such roads. Later, a southern version was introduced that split some of the harder roads into more digestible bites and expanded the set to 12 roads. To this day, if you say you practice tan tui, those in the know will immediately ask “ten or 12?” Tan Tui is a popular set adopted by many styles and lent a special flavor by each. For instance, in one branch of mantis, there is a 14-road tan mi. With such popularity tan tui became one of the first universal kung-fu sets and therefore can claim a part as forerunner of contemporary wushu?s standardized forms.

Tan tui, as we have said, is not a flashy looking set. Mostly straight punches and kicks, it seems to some to possess a robotic aspect that makes it look more like work than fun. But tan tui is so profound that many boxers throughout history have specialized in its technique. For instance, the wide-open punches of tan tui, known as yoke punches, are designed along the lines of Chinese medical practice to stretch and invigorate the meridians of the body.

Simultaneously, the yoke punch, with its exaggerated arm extension, is a perfect indicator of the placement of the student?s waist. Shoulders, which normally fly upward in the beginning student, are so stretched they naturally drop and relax. The same benefits go for the extended long leg kicks of the art. As the name suggests tan tui attempts to strengthen the abdominal muscles of the practitioner by forcing him to extend while kicking. The striking leg must immediately elevate from the ground with minimal cocking action.

In true northern kung-fu long fist fashion, tan tui encourages the student to find his maximum range of motion before tightening and shortening up. Tan tui disallows the beginner?s tendency of bent limbs and tensed muscles to create power. It lives up to its name of long fist by making the student think in a new way, in a sense reprogramming his ideas of power generation and range of motion.

In due course, after the student has learned the ten basic roads the real training should begin. This is a good example of ancient training methods versus more contemporary ones. Nowadays, having completed the tan tui, the student immediately moves onto another more interesting and diverse set of actions. This is too bad because the training has really just begun. For instance, since the ten roads are each seperate they can be done in any order. A good tan tui instructor will then have the student mix and match roads until any road can be done in any order at will. Then the roads are again practiced with shuffling steps, changes of speed, and angled steps breaking the robot-like aspect completely. This challenges the students? creativity and ability to respond. Finally the actions from the roads are completely mixed so the student may start with No. 1, switch to No. 8, and finish with No. 5 without losing place or direction. From a simple series of movements the student is now only a small step from basic sparring practice.

Tan tui is said to have been created in the Ming dynasty by ChaShagmir (a distinctly Moslem name even in Chinese). Chamir, as he was called, was among those who went to the coast to protect the shores of China against raids by Japanese pirates. However, on this long journey he became sick from the harsh weather conditions. He was left to recuperate in a mountain village in Guanxian County. His hosts in this small village were so kind to him that when he recovered that autumn and watched them practice their kung-fu after harvest he decided to teach them the art he had devised. They were grateful and his art spread far and wide from this origin. People took the first syllable of his name “Cha” and thus the style known as “cha chuan” – cha fist, was born. Originally its basis, the tan tui set, was composed of 28 routines – one for each letter of the Arabic alphabet. Eventually everything was compiled into the ten road spring leg which remains with us today.

Those familiar with Arabic religious poetry will note that many root words in Arabic are without vowels and can be rearranged to create other meanings and levels of understanding. This rearrangement, also familiar to certain Christian and Jewish sects, was considered a valid study for all students of the Bible, Torah and Koran. And note as an interesting sidelight that this is precisely the method of teaching for the tan tui, taking ten routes (roots) and reassembling them to form new meanings and combinations still related to the original exercises.

There is an old saying in kung-fu that one form mastered is worth a hundred tasted. But too often people take this to indicate a mindless repetition of the form. Tan tui is a perfect example of what form mastery is meant to entail. Rather than learning flashier new forms which ultimately reduce to the same moves in new combinations with a little ?Hollywood? thrown in, the traditional student of kung-fu developed power and stability with familiar movements before gradually altering them to new situations. He reinvested and compounded his knowledge. It was a wise way to save and to practice.

Known throughout China tan tui is particularly practiced in Henan, Hebei, Shangtung and Shaanxi provinces. Since its origins lie with the Hui people there is even a proverb: “From Nanjin the best tan tui is that of the Hui people” which becomes the pun, “Hui (Moslem) Hui (best) Tan Tui”.

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